India being a country where more than half of the population is living in villages, thus the need for developing this module is sensed by the authors, smart village is an initiative to provide access to villages so that the people can stand shoulder to shoulder with the world. The project is trying to preserve and nurture the essence of rural community life with focus on equity and inclusiveness without compromising with the facilities perceived to be essentially urban in nature. The motive of the paper is to create a sense of understanding in the minds of readers for development of education, local business opportunities, improving health and welfare, commercial agriculture, infrastructure, enhancing democratic engagement and overall enhancement of rural village dwellers. This paper talks more on enhancement and improvement of basic amenities with sustainable and optimum utilization of resources. Taking into consideration the various problems of the villages such as maximising profits of farmers on its own by reducing the expenditure, providing clean, arsenic, fluoride and iron free drinking water by installing various water cleaning technologies, development of storage with proper connectivity and chain storage module, adoption of disaster management measures and equipments for controlling situation during drought and other disasters Also the various skill development programs for generating employment and for upliftment of standard of living of people is also discussed in detail in the paper with a hypothetical situation and solution for the same.
Key words:- India, Villages ,requirements, Benefits, Awareness programs, resources, Technologies, Skill development, Digitalisation, disaster management ,
“THE FUTURE OF INDIA LIVES IN VILLAGES”
One of the most important and accurate questions that contemporary societies have to address is how to make people’s communities and their settlements more sustainable. An ever growing number of aspects of most societies and their economies are inextricably linked to changes brought forward by technological developments that are transforming people’s everyday routines, perceptions of the environment, access to the electricity, food, health, education and many other. As per 2030 agenda adopted by UN includes sustainable developmental goals, which stressed on sustainable development in every segments of life Including education, employment, inequality and access to settlements etc. For achieving the higher level of sustainability, one’s development should in equilibrium, and optimum, most commonly we can say SMART development. The concept for urban smart communities is already very well established—e.g., Smart Cities, but less so for rural communities as the concept Smart Village has only recently gained momentum; for example, in the EU, the Smart Village Initiative was launched by the European Parliament in 2017, and the EU Action for Smart Villages document was published by the European Commission together with the European Parliament. Moreover, ‘Smart Villages’ was initiated as a subtheme within the European Network for Rural Development (ERND) work on ‘Smart and competitive rural areas’ between September 2017 and July 2018.
India being the world’s fastest growing economy, its heart lie’s in villages or rural areas. Around 68.84%population lives in villages or rural areas. Rural areas are commonly termed as VILLAGE in India. Rural areas are defined as:-
ACCORDING TO PLANNING COMMISSION:-
“A town with a Maximum population of 15000 is considered rural in nature”.
ACCORDING TO NATIONAL SAMPLE SURVEY ORGANISATION (NSSO)
- An area with a population density of up to 400 per sq. KM
- Villages with clear surveyed boundaries but no municipal boards.
- A minimum of 75% of male working population involved in agriculture and allied activities.
ACCORDING TO HEALTH & SERVICE ADMINISTRATION OF U.S.A
“All population housing and territories not included within an urban area whatever is not urban is considered rural”
India comprises of around 6, 40, 867 villages out of which U.P. has largest no. of villages (1.09 lakhs) with total population of around 155.5million i.e. 18.62% of total rural population of INDIA And hence rural development in U.P. will play very significant role in the development of U.P. and India as well.
- SMART VILLAGE
“THE WORST FORM OF INEQUALITY IS TO TRY TO MAKE UNEQUAL THINGS EQUAL”
Smart villages are the villages where the villagers will be provided equal opportunity to all the people irrespective of their caste, creed, sex and religion to capture many of the benefits of urban life while retaining valued aspects of rural life, and ensuring balanced development at a national level. Smart village focus will be on minimum expenditure and maximum profit, this plan’s aim is to create a network where government, international agencies, NGO’S (not only local but form all around the country by forming virtual network; ‘Resources may not be commuted everywhere but Ideas can definitely be”) and villagers which will lead to optimal utilization of resources in equilibrial manner.
- LITERATURE REVIEW
- ANCIENT INDIA  :- Planning for the village includes
a. Examination of Soil (bhu-Parsiksha)
b. Selection of site (bhumi-samgraha)
c. Determination of direction (Dikapariccheda)
d. Division of ground into square (Padavinyara)
e. The offering (Balikarmavidhana)
f. Planning of villages and town (Gramavinyasa, nagravinayasa)
g. Building and their different stories (Bhumividha)
h. Construction of gateway (Gopuravidhana)
i. Construction of Temple (Mandapavidhana)
j. Construction of Royal palaces (Rajaveshmavidhana)
Ancient planners determine the sites with special view to which its natural situation could best be turned into fortifications. The sites are carefully chosen according to principles, ritualistic and sanitary preserved in the traditions of the ancient Indian master builders as well as laid down in their treaties.
When things can be so well planned during the ancient age, then why modern India should be unplanned and hence Smart Village is call of the time.
- “European Union Action for Smart Villages”:-
Smart villages are rural areas and communities which build on their existing strengths and assets as well as new opportunities to develop added value and where traditional and new networks are enhanced by means of digital communications, technologies, innovations and the better use of knowledge for the benefit of inhabitants. Some of the priorities are also being mentioned there such as
a. Priority 1:- Fostering knowledge transfer and innovation in agriculture, forestry, and rural areas.
b. Priority 2:- Enhancing farm viability and competitiveness of all types of agriculture in all regions and promoting innovative farm technology and the sustainable management of forests.
c. Priority 3:- Promoting food chain organization including processing and marketing of agricultural products animal welfare and risk management in agriculture.
Core India still lives in villages and hence core Indian knowledge can only be fetched by the world from the villages only. Thus villages should be designed as a global village. It should be such that the world community should unfold India and its history, and its best pathway is village.
- Smart Growth Plan Wisconsin, USA,
Defined six smart goals that were most widely incorporated into smart growth plans in Wisconsin case. In their contribution they emphasize on
a. Creating new housing choices and opportunities.
b. Making communities more accessible by foot.
c. Enforcing the sense of place in communities.
d. Preserving different environmental zones.
e. Connecting new and the existent developmental aims.
f. More varieties in terms of transportation.
Smart village will be based on sustainable energy and resources accessible model.
- CONCEPT OF SMART VILLAGE
The basis of smart village is to collect community efforts and strength of people from various streams and integrate it with information technology to provide benefit to the rural community. The ‘smart village’ is a model in which, energy access acts as a catalyst for a range of development outcomes. Smart village is the village where the villagers could have the opportunity to capture many of the benefits of urban life while retaining valued aspects of rural life, and ensured balanced development at national level.
|VIBRANT||Motivating people with seminars, and interaction with young entrepreneur of the nations.|
|INTELLIGENT||Ready to generate all resources for self sufficiency and self governance. Responsive for cooperative movements and collective wisdom.|
|LIVING||Healthy, pollution free and sanitized life|
|LEARNING||Through internet. Also learning about the CASTESIM, RELIGION and the related evil practices.|
|ADAPTING||Global, social and economic issues adapting and adjusting the fast changing environment.|
|GREEN||Promotion organic farming, bio gas plant, methane lights etc.|
|ICT||Techno-savvy for IT transparent mobile usage harmonic relations|
- FEATURES OF SMART VILLAGE
1.) SMART VILLAGE MEANS EQUALITY:-
^No more untouchability, Casteism and Discrimination
^ Fair level playing field for all
^Teaching the basic of Varna System in a systematic manner.
2.) SMART VILAGE MEANS DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES:-
^ Using IT to make life better and easy.
^ Using for Business, Agri products B2C
3.) SMART VILLAGE MEANS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:-
^Meeting the need of present without compromising the need of future.
^It signifies before adding new into villages let’s focus optimized use of primarily available resources.
4.) SMART VILLAGE MEANS BUILDING NEW FORMS OF COORPORATION AND ALLAINCES:-
^Alliances with NGO’s and CSR for developmental Ideas and Technology
^Workshops and seminars for acknowledging people about their surroundings.
5.) SMART VILLAGE MEANS ADEQUATE INFRASTRUCTURE FACALITIES:-
^Better Road, sanitation, transportation etc everything which help one to live a standard and dignified life.
6.) SMART VILLAGE MEANS SMART EDUCATION:-
^ E-Education + Value based education
^ Teaching about their surrounding and resources.
^ Inculcating improvisational skills.
# Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM):-
The government of India launched at Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM) in 2016, with objective to spare social, economic and infrastructural development in rural areas.
Mission:-Its aim is to make village smart and growth center of the nation
Important factors which play major role in village are being discussed below in systematic and detailed manner, which are as follows:-
“Agriculture is the most healthful, most useful and most noble employment of Man”
Agriculture is a process of producing food, feed, fiber and many other desired products by the cultivation of domesticated animals. The practice of agriculture is known as farming while scientist, inventors and other devoted to improving farming methods and implements are also said to be engaged in agriculture.
“The science art, or practice of cultivating the soil, producing crops, and raising livestock and in varying degrees the preparation and marketing of the resulting products”
Today food production is not the trigger for an agricultural crisis. Global and local market volatility is the current bane. Global explosion in food grain production has changed the market dynamics leading to pressure costs are rising everyday thereby impacting farmer’s incomes, debt repayment capacity and their overall well being. Making matters worse farmers bear the entire risk in the form to market cycle. Be it out break and pests at production or losses in storage and transport or price uncertainty while marketing the risk is not distributed evenly amongst other stakeholders like grain traders, aggregators or processors.
- UTTAR PRADESH
One of the most populous state of India with its more than half of the population dependent on agriculture. It has 75 districts, 327 tehsils, 822 blocks and 107452 revenue villages. Condition of agriculture is not satisfactory due to various reasons.
“To maintain the annual growth rate of 5.1% in the financial year 2016-17, the department of agriculture has fixed the target of 659.49 lac metric tons production of total food grains against which expected production is 539.14 lac metric tons out of which food grain production was 180.25 lacs metric ton in Kharif. In Rabi, expected production of food grains is 355.90 lac metric tons. Expected production of oil seed crops is 10.37 lacs metric tons against the target of 14.13 lacs metric tons.
The state is divided into sub parts which has their own contribution in development of U.P which are as
1.) PASCHIM U.P. (26 districts)
^JAT land, gained prosperity due to rich agriculture and sugarcane cultivation.
^Proximity to Delhi has lead to major development in this area
2.) AWADH PRADESH (21 district)
^This area once ruled by Nawabs and Taluqdars.
^High wheat producing area because of fertile Gangatic plain.
^ This area gave three P.M. to nations, but is still backward.
3.) PURVANCHAL(21 districts)
^Bhojpuri speaking belt
^ This area gave 4 P.M to Nation, still backward due to availability of resources.
4.) BUNDELKHAND (7 district)
^ Known for its Warrior queen Jhansi’s Rani Laxmi Bai.
^Region felt neglected after independence
^ Reeling under drought from many years, also 80% population lives in poverty.
^ Some have deserted the farming and this region because of these factors.
- STATUS OF FARMING IN UP
a.)Low average income per worker in agriculture:-
Agriculture being the largest sector of the state economy, it share highest in both the state income as well as in employment. However, there is a gross imbalance in these shares, and unlike the other sectors of the state’s economy, its share in total workers of the state is far higher than its share in state income. As a result, the average income per worker of this sector, with the largest workforce having to support the largest section of population is far less compared to the corresponding income per worker in other sectors of the economy.
b.) Disguised Unemployment
A higher growth in agriculture is not all that is needed to improve the state’s economy. The impact of a higher growth on its economy will not be felt until it also leads to a raise in the income of the agriculture workforce. Currently, this workforce is much more than what is required for full and gainful employment.
c.)Stagnation in the Rate of Growth of Agriculture
It is well known that weather included fluctuations are a normal feature in agricultural production and the rate of growth in the agriculture sector is influenced by these fluctuations. But when these fluctuations are very large, either because of droughts or floods, there is always a risk that rates of growth for a particular period do not always portray the correct picture depending upon the extent of loss in agricultural production in the base year or terminal year of the period.
Irrigation is the lifeline of agriculture and yet a large proportion of the area is unirrigated in the state. The state has ample amounts of tube wells, hand pumps and wells but with the depletion of ground water majority of them stopped functioning.
- Climate Change
Increasingly, the impact of climate change and global warming is being felt in the state, as in other parts of the country. On the whole, there has been a greater frequency of droughts and floods, one of the hallmarks of climate change.
“In eastern UP, chronically flood prone, the very nature of the flooding has changed, with a greater intensity of flash floods. Embankment along the various rivers, unable to withstand the heavy flooding, often breaks, washing away croplands and mud homes. There has been change in flooding patterns too. The flood here are frequently flash and accidental (that is, sudden and unexpected), smaller rivers are also water retention (and hence water logging) have increased. Crop damage is on an increasing trend. Cropping patterns are changing and pulses (once a major crop in the area and a major source of protein) are not grown due to longer periods of water logging, which disrupts the whole crop cycle and production, even in the Rabi season, is severely affected.”
We need to adopt various methods for solving this problem, and its solution is only sustainable development. There are various methods to overcome such problems which are as:-
1.) Vedic Agricultural methods
India had ancient wisdom of farming since beginning of human civilization. It came from enlightened rishis who lived in forests and understood all the rhythms of nature. Rishis Parashara taught us the art and science of cultivation as per Vedic science. This methodology play a significant role not only because it belongs to India but also all these was set up once near the Gangatic plan which UP has, thus UP has interwoven relation with Vedic age.
#METHODS are as follows
i.) COATING SEED BEFORE PLANTATION:-
“Coat all seeds with honey and ghee mixture 1:1 before sowing”.
The coating of seeds with honey and ghee is given by the Rishis. This provides a powerful boost to the potencies of the seeds and helps them germinate and give a crop that is strong and resistant to disease for its entire life.
ii.) BULB PREPARATION
“Coat all bulbs with wet cow dung before sowing”
It will reduce the chances of bulb getting destroyed by any insects or disease.
This is special herbal nectar water that is fed to the soil to improve its nutrition and bring more vitality (prana) to the soil.
Use 200 liters of Amritpani per acre of farmland.
250g. pure cow ghee from indigenous cows
500g. of organic raw unheated honey
10kg of fresh cow dung from indigenous cows
Mix the ghee and the dung first well. Blend the honey into this mixture add the 200 liters water stirring all the time
*How to use
Plant sugarcane, turmeric, and ginger after dipping into the amritpani. For all seedlings dip the roots into amritpani before planting. When watering crops mix amritpani in stirring all the time when planting fruit trees, wet around the area with amritpani.
iv.) PEST CONTROL from COW URINE AND NEEM
Keep bottles of cow urine(from indigenous cows) in sunlight and mix with neem extract (see below) for spraying crop as a preventative measure for insects, Mix 150 ml in 15 liter of water. 60liter of this solution is enough for 1 acre.
Soak 14-20kg of small bunches of neem branches in 150-200 liters of water. Keep in the shade for 4 days. You can also dilute this with water after filtration if required. If neem leaves are not available take 4-5 kg of neem oil cake and soak, filter and dilute as above. Cow urine and neem spray is an effective anti pest measure.
(I think it’s Similar to Neem urea method)
Cow urine from indigenous cow breeds is an excellent pest control method. Spray it weekly once as a preventative measure. If you store it in glass bottles for some time the potency will improve. You can keep the bottles in sunlight. To make a spray solution dilute 20% cow urine and 80% water and spray weekly even if the plants are healthy as a preventative measure.
^Neem extract mixed with cow urine is even more effective for pest control.
2.) POWER TILLER
^Machine used for cultivation, tillage, sowing and weeding
^ It contain set of blades mounted with a wheeled housing
^Best for Sugarcane Farming, Rice Farming, Wheat Farming and Paddy Farming
^Price:-6HP:-63000, 7HP:-55000, 9HP:-80000
^Subsidy:-SC/ST 50%, General40% (All over India)
3.) GREEN HOUSE FARMING
^ It’s a technology of providing favorable environmental condition to plant
^protect plant from insects, diseases, adverse climate conditions, etc.
^It’s a framed structure covered with transparent material large enough to grow crops
^Advantages 10-12%increase in yield than open cultivation, suitable for vegetable a and flower crops, off season production of vegetable and fruits crop and disease free crops
4,) POLYHOUSE CULTIVATION
^It is made of polyethylene Material, other thing same as Green house farming
^Government subsidy of 80%
5) Farmyard Manure
^Decomposed mixture of Dung and Urine of Farm animals along with litter and left over material from roughages or fodder fed to the cattle
^Advantages Supply plants nutrients including micronutrients, CO2 released during decomposition act as fertilizer, also increase soil physical structure.
- GOVERNMENT SCHEMES (Adding a step more in becoming smart)
1.) SOIL HEALTH CARD
^Introduced to assist state government to issue soil health cards to farmers.
^Provide information on nutrient status of soil along with recommended dosage of nutrients to be used for improving soil health
2.) PARAMPARAGAT KRISHI VIKAS YOJANA (PKVY)
^Implemented to promote organic farming
^Aim is to improve the condition of soil as well as the income of the farmer.
3.) NATIONAL AGRICULTURE MARKET (e-NAM) 
^Provides e-marketing platform at national level and support creation of infrastructure to enable e-marketing.
^This innovative market process is revolutionizing agriculture markets by ensuring better price discovery.
^It brings in transparency and competition to enable farmers to get improved remuneration for their produce moving towards ‘One Nation One Market’.
- REFORMS FOR CHANGE
#Buying to Renting
Small farmers with low income group for increasing their income opt for new technologies and machinery for making their farming more advanced. But today some apps such as TRRINGO provide farming equipments on rent, which will lower the burden of small farmers of purchasing heavy and costly equipments.
#Growing and Check to Check and Grow
Farmers sow different seed year after year so as to raise its production but its mostly found out to be a precarious risk taken by farmers. Thus under this Plan we have introduced soil check up as mandatory which will lower the risk of damages.
#Boundaries to Trees
Every farmer’s uses boundary or fencing to protect its land. But in smart village ecology will prevail and boundaries will be substituted by trees which will not only hold their land tight but will also control the climate change.
#Promoting Reuse and Recycle then New use
Regularly opting for new resources is not only increasing the carbon footprints but is also depleting the resources for the future and hence programs for reuse and recycling the things should be introduced.
We are not lacking because we don’t have technologies but we are lacking because we have forgot our own identity. Smartness is interwoven in us and in our history it’s because of our smartness and intelligence that once we are the “JAGATGURU” all because of our farming techniques and ideas. We have never harvested our land we have always prayed, enriched and nurtured our mother earth and what we get at that time was nothing but the reward for our gratitude and compassion toward our land and farms. And thus we should learn to love and show compassion toward our farms and land then only we can each sustainable development.
“May the water be pleasant to our taste be free from diseases, sin and sickness, be the remover of fear of death, be full of divine qualities and be the strength of eternal law”
Water is a precious gift given by God while ensuring the conservation, planned management and sustainable use of every drop of water; we are continuously dedicated to the service of society, state and nation keeping the protection of flora and fauna in mind.
According to Dr. Ramy A. Fathy
“Inadequate water quantities or bad quantity water can be limited in poverty alleviating and economic recovery, resulting in poor health and low productivity, food insecurity and constrained economic development”
According to Charaka
Jalamekam vidham sarvam patayaindram nabhastalat |
Tatpatatpatitam caiva desakalavapeksate ||
Water is essential for our survival. Currently India is facing its worst crisis in its history.In which U.P stands on 12th position out of 17 states. The condition of water in U.P is not new, besides having Gangetic and Yamuna bank and various canals the things are unfavorable and are continuously leading us toward more and more precarious situation.
Bundelkhand region faced 13 drought in past 15 year consecutively because of which peasants has lost 70% of Rabi crops, according to government. As a result of which farmers are committing suicides and some of them have even deserted the region. Center has spent 15000 crore (on making 1,16000 harvesting structure/including 700 check dams and 236 minor irrigation projects) in Bundelkhand region from 2006- 2015. But yet the situation is not even satisfactory.
~Banda District Magistrate Yogesh Kumar says: “35 per cent of the 33,000 hand pumps in Banda have been rendered non-functional. The drinking water problem is made worse by the high salinity levels in the region. Since the Ken is drying fast and is expected to become shallow in May, villagers fear the worst, and in recent weeks many water fights have been reported.”
~Analysis of scarcity of Water
#Physical Water Scarcity
^Condition where there is not enough water to meet demand.
^Whenever more than 60 % of river water are withdrawn there basin will experience physical water scarcity in the near future.
# Economic Water Scarcity
^ It is the lack of investment is water construction and management to meet the required water demand.
^ No enough monetary means to obtain adequate and clean water
Thus for making any policies this aspect should be taken into consideration so as to make the policies equilibrial.
Money and material cannot heal everything; law of attraction has its own principles. Govt. did not focus on identifying and reviving traditional water bodies like ponds that had become defunct due to neglect. There are many more Challenges in U.P with regards to water such as
a.)Unsustainable use of ground water for sugarcane crops and households, wastage is depleting the groundwater table very fast
b.) Excessive use of fertilizers in sugarcane is contaminating freshwater aquifers and surface water source at an alarming rate, polluting these to a point where the water becomes unfit for human consumption.
c.) Even though there hasn’t been a complete consensus on the relationship between the quality of water in region and explosion of diseases- with the no. of cancer cases rising sharply in recent years many contend that it’s due to the rampant use of harmful pesticides
d) Depletion of groundwater to lower level has contaminated the water; it contains fluoride, arsenic and iron. People are frightened to drink the groundwater.
e.) Polluted river bed because of Nallahs joining it and also the industrial waste.
Water is an important aspect of human life which needs to be preserved, conserved and managed. Smart Village Master plan is nothing but the management of things such that one enjoys the maximum benefit with less wastage and less harm. For these managements of existing things has to be given primary importance.
- WATER MANAGEMENT BY TECHNOLOGIES
^Cost efficient partial treatment of waste grey or storm water.
^ A safe way to discharge water into environment after recharging ground water.
^ As waste water percolates through the soil from a magic pit, small particles are filtered out by the soil matrix and organics are digested by micro-organisms. Sub-soil layers are water permeable in order to avoid fast saturation
^ Should be located at a safe distance from safe drinking water (30M atleast)
^ No maintenance for 3-4 years
i.) Can be built and repaired with locally available materials.
ii.) Technique simple to apply for all users.
iii.) Small land area is required.
iv.) Low capital cost; low operating cost.
v.) Recharging ground water bodies
2.) REVERSE OSMOSIS
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses semi permeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water. About 60% of diseases afflicting the rural population are waterborne. So, instead of spending money on medical facilities use clean drinking water
3.) Technologies recognized by Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation Govt. of India
a.) JAL DOOT:-
^It’s an ultra filtration membrane technology use to purify water.
^These filtration systems run without electricity.
^It is fit behind a cart and it can provide door to door water facilities. It will also generate employment in rural areas.
b.) Solar Powered U.F. and RO water treatment system:-
^Clean 50 gallon water per min.
^It takes water from well and rivers and filter the water through R.O. technology.
^ Its cost is 50% less compared to grid and diesel generators. As it has solar it can operate at 100% daily design capacity during 6-8 hr. and if required uses AC power as backup at night time in hybrid mode to operate 24 hr.
i.) Self Contained operation
ii.) Containerized and portable for water treatment in remote locations
iii.) Highly efficient customizable and economical
iv.) Conservatively engineered for reliable long term performance
v.) Microprocessor or remote data and control communication.
c.) Rain Water Harvesting
- Rainwater Harvesting is a technique of collection and storage of rainwater into natural reservoirs and tanks, or the infiltration of surface water into subsurface aquifers. The rainwater harvesting is of different types such as,
i.)Directly from roof tops and stored in tanks,
ii.)Monsoon runoff and water in swollen streams during the monsoon and storing it in underground tanks
iii.) Water from flooded rivers can be stored in small ponds
iv.) Collection and transfer of rainwater into percolation tanks. So as to facilitate discharge into ground.
But for village we use roof rainwater harvesting for houses. With rooftop harvesting, any surface – tiles, metal sheets, plastic but not grass or palm leaf can be used to intercepts the flow of rainwater and provide a clean water and year-round storage. Other uses include water for gardens, irrigation of annual crops pastures and trees, domestic and livestock consumption, ground water recharge. The rainwater harvesting is mandatory to all in village.
1. Rainwater harvesting provides a good supplement to other water sources .Thus relieving pressure on other water sources.
2. It can be as a buffer and can be used in times of emergency or breakdown of public water supply systems.
3. Helps to reduce the storm drainage load and flooding in the cities.
4. It is a flexible technology and can be built to require meets of any range .Also the construction, operation and maintenance is not very labor intensive in most systems.
5. Prevents water wastage by arresting soil erosion and mitigates flood.
6. Sustains and safeguards existing water table through recharge.
4.) WATERSHADE MANAEMENT:
^Watershed development refers to a set of measures that help retain water within a watershed.
^ Include soil and water conservation, a forestation, grasslands development and protection of biomass.
^Water management means properly organizing the hydrosphere in order to prevent major water crisis in future.
^The main goal of Watershed Management is to implant the sustainable management of natural resources to improve the quality of living for the population
- WATER MANAGEMENT THROUGH NGO’s(Effectively contributed in Maharashtra in fighting Drought)
1.) ACWADAM (Advanced center for water resource development and management):-
^Mission:- To stimulate and facilitate work related to groundwater management in India
^It work in partnership as an institution
^This Ngo want to establish a groundwater agenda in India.
^Its own agenda is managing a Common Pool Resource through scientifically based participatory processes.
2.) PAANI FOUNDATION
^Its was set up to make Maharashtra drought free using the power of communication
^It was found man is responsible for the crisis i.e. drought, not the nature
^Scientific solution to this was watershed management, but greater problem address has been that of social structure.
^They believe that drought can be eradicated by people’s movement.
Importance of water is not new concept since ages we are using it in rituals and ceremonies and indeed we pray water as goddess and god itself because we knew to go away from this will ruin away everything. Thus for solving this problem we have to analyze the problem of drought and scarcity and there pattern, and also solving it through collective initiative of each and every individual and PPP (Public Private Partnership)
“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world”
Village is the baseline of India. Thus India can become vibrant developed and smart only when its villages are smart. Being smart is not a natural, it’s an art which come from learning and learning signifies education. For meeting the requirement of time education must be reformed into smart education. Education sector is being revolutionized by rapid increase in internet penetration and availability of low cost mobile devices. Technology has the potential to multiply reach.
U.P which has India’s largest child population and thus education U.P is call of time school in rural areas are promoted to raise the level of education and literacy in rural India.
According to Article 45:-
“Basic elementary education will be provided to all children up to age of fourteen year”.
- ANICENT EDUCATION SYSTEM(Call of the hour)
India has a rich traditional learning and education right from the beginning of time. There are Shastra’s and Sutra’s which detail the duty of a teacher and students. The education system is fully based on making of a man and not for just survival. The making of man was regarded as artistic and true purpose of education. It was sought as the means of self realization, as the means to the highest end of life, viz. Mukti or Emancipation. It was a training of the mind and the process of thinking, are essential for the acquisition of knowledge. The pupil had mainly to educate himself and achieve his own mental growth.
Ancient Education system in India had three simple processes
^Listening to truth, technically known as Sruti(what was being heard)
^Because pronunciation is utmost important, pronunciation differs meaning also differ.
ii.) Manana –
^Student need to interpret himself whatever is imparted so that the may assimilating.
^It is to remove the doubts about the knowledge received via Sharvana.
iii.) Nidhyasana –
^Its complete comprehension of truth that is taught ,which means actual feeling then just words.
^It must results in realization
^ Involve meditating upon what has been intellectually understood.
Smart village will also comprises of smart education model, development of which needs to be installed or substituted with advanced learning pattern which are as follows:-
1.) E- Learning:-
^Combination of Internet service technology and learning
^Worldwide reach, even in remotest areas.
^Set up of national program:-“National Program on Technology Enhanced learning (NPTEL)
^Aim of NPTEL was to develop curriculum band video lectures and web courses to enhance the equality of engineering education in India.
2.) Standardization and Globalization:-
^Rural areas problem can be solved by standardized and globalized parameters
^Schools should be structured as per standardized material and with proper technology.
^ Globalization and standardization materials process should focus on rural education components such as:-
i.) Expertise education and quality study materials.
ii.) Sharing the knowledge about recent trends and opportunities
iii.) Exposure of modern world
iv.) On demand education
v.) Knowledge about their own land and resources.
^ Launched for successfully presenting educational videos.
^ It’s distant education learning.
^ Educational satellite
^ M-leaning (the use of mobile devices to deliver education anytime anywhere) could be a boon for India’s education sector, especially in field of adult learning.
^ An average Indian spends 3 hr and 15 minutes every day with phone.
^Proliferation of mobile tech. made it the need for hour to re-model and upgrade current education system
^ It is attributed to fact that we are 2nd largest mobile phone users.
*Examples of M- Learning
i.) Flipped classrooms–
^ Combination of face to face content delivery and offline learning approach to take education to next level.
^This mechanism is revolutionizing education sector
ii.) MOOC (Massive Open Online Course):-Is a open source model for delivering high quality learning content/course online to anyone free of cost, not restriction of attendance, age and so on.
# the government should offer subsidies to mobile services provides for providing special tariff plan for accessing education portals and specific education sites.
# Our motive is not to educate students with marks but to educate them with improvisation, knowledge and with 3D (Dedication, Descipline and Determination)
Education signifies understanding and learning how to behave and react in different circumstances, it not just about reading books and novels and becoming intellectual without actually knowing the basis of teaching; it’s about eternal elevation of a being. The ancient education system was far more vibrant than today’s and they knew the importance of conscience. Smart village prima facie focus is to develop the students into the leaders by elevating there moral and values such that they take care of their problem by their own self.
“Sanitation is more important then Independence”
Smart sanitation is a now way of looking at sanitation designed for cost recovery, revenue generating business opportunity and future system resilience. It leverages innovative technologies based on the collection and monitoring benefits of real time data that are already reshaping most industrial sectors via the fourth industrial revolution 
Smart Sanitation will suggest:-
i.) Providing smart, clean and accessible public and community toilets to the resident and floating population.
ii.) No Visible waste:-To clear waste from street, chronic spots and containers as fast as possible
iii.) Zero -Waste policy:- To significantly minimize the movement of waste from ABB to landfill by adopting in – situ composition, neighborhood level conversion and specialized processing of segregated waste.
- Innovation includes
A.) TOILET ECONOMY:-
^ Human waste needs a new name.
^It contain nutrients, energy, water, and even providing data,
^ It’s a system of marinating them for all context and income together
B.) SMART TOILETS:-
* Solar powered Urine Diversion (SPUD):-
^100% waterless and chemical free, can get easily installed in rural areas
^ Low maintenance and most advanced
^ Toilet comes attached with a solar powered fan which dries the human waste and excreta instead of flushing it out the conventional way.
^ Fan works 24 hr and dries the excreta completely, which can be later used as manure.
*Dr. BHINDESHWAR PATHAK’s ECO FRIENDLY TWO PITS, POUR- FLUSH COMPOST TOILET
^ Two Pit holes are created around the toilet, one functional while other remain closed until one is full.
^ Filled pit close is then closed for composting, and waste collected in that pit is converted to bio fertilizer.
^ Fertilizers made this way are high in nitrogen and phosphorus, these chemical help in better irrigation
* LIXIL’s SATO (Safe toilet) PAN:-
^Cheap innovative design for poor house hold
^It uses a simple trap door design that form a water seal at the bottom of a pan set into a cement slab over the pit.
^ It reduces the transmission of disease by insect, reduce odor and reduces the volume of water needed to flush.
* GARV STAINLESS STEEL PUBLIC TOILET INFRASTRUCTURE:-
^ Model uses stainless steel structure, for making the units Vandal-proof, rust roof and easy clean.
C.) WASTE MANAGEMENT:-
^Community should be provided with 3 buckets, Green, Blue and Red
^Green is for kitchen refusal and leftover food and other wet waste.
^Blue is for Dry waste such as FMCG goods cover etc
^ Red is for hazardous waste such as used condoms, sanitary napkins, medicines etc
^ Waste should be collected everyday and should be optimally utilized
#Green waste should be feed, to the cattle’s which are being deserted by their owners and are situated in GAUSHALA
# Plastic poly bags should be substituted with Renewable bags. The process of making these bags will also help in providing employment to the rural people.
- SMART HEALTH CARE
Its health that is real wealth and not piece of Gold and Silver
Healthy body is the producer of good healthy intelligence. It is one of the basic fundamentals of human life. One cannot live a dignified life without being healthy. U.P’s sole lives in villages, and thus its one of the cynosure for state health department. The object of this department is providing health services in urban and remote areas, it include three tier services. Firstly, services in urban areas. Secondly and thirdly, health services in rural areas.
Beside all this condition is not even satisfactory in rural areas of Uttar Pradesh. U.P ranked second in worst doctors serves a population, i.e. 19,962 patients per doctor. Government in rural health statistics reports 2016 shows that there is 84% shortage of specialists, 77% shortage of lab technicians and 89% shortage of radiographers in Community health series, and 91% of primary health service do not have lady doctors.
# This problems are not fully because of administrative fault in providing services rather it’s a connectivity fault. Because of huge population and vast area the services could not be provided to each and every individual in a effective and efficient manner. For solving this issue that are various ICT which are as follows:-
1.) Mobile technology for Health care
^It involves use of SMS and cell phones technology for information management, transactional exchange and personal communication.
^It will provide the low cost services at high reach services.
^ It offers significant opportunities for improving the back office operation in govt.
^Successfully working in South Africa
2.) Mobile Telemedicine System
^Providing medicine at door step
^ Effectively working in Sukalumi, West Java, Indonesia
^Sehat Sathi telemedicine system also developed at IIT Kanpur
^Pregnant + Ambulance
^ Special ambulance specifically for pregnant ladies should be there in every rural area.
# The past, health has always been an afterthought, retrofitting being the order of the day we have never ever been future ready – with the imminent construction of smart communities, this is once in a life time opportunity
# Most importantly 24/7 availability of EMR will considerably reduce duplication of investigations. Immediate access to entire past and present medical history to authorized personnel will produce incremental changes in quality of health care delivery.
# Also remote health monitoring at home, that reduces hospital bed occupancy by converting a home into a health care ward using technology
i.) SOLAR STREET LIGHTS
^ Solar street light harness energy from the sun to provide an alternative source of energy to conventional street lighting.
(a.) Zero running cost,
b) Guaranteed working in rainy season
c.) No schedule maintenance for up to 5 years
d.) Power friendly 100% powered by sun
ii.) SOLAR PANELS
^ Smart village should be self sustained and should not be dependent
^ Solar Panels are photovoltaic which absorb sunlight as a source of energy.
^ It consist array of a photovoltaic system that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential application
^ It produces power even on cloudy day
^ Government also provides subsidy up to 40 % on installing solar panel
# It will also generate employment as with the increase in supply demand for workers or employees will increase.
^ Wireless internet is the soul of smart village.
^ Smart village should be free WI-FI zone (If possible)
^ Else it should be provided for free necessarily at Panchayat Bhawan and Schools
iv.) PANCHAYAT BHAWAN
^ Establishment of Panchayat Bhawan
^ Panch Should not just give decision rather, it should be for discussing the ideas for growth and development
^ Also organizing various monthly lecture serious for updating farmers about technologies and also regarding employment
^It should be installed in every corner of the village.
^ Important announcements like holding gram sabha, information of any event, and many similar announcements can be made as an when required.
- Plastic Road
^ Made from recycled plastic material, can be called as green road
^ Stronger and maintenance free, last three time more than normal trees
^ It involves recycling plastic waste into light weight, prefabricated modules with hollows interiors that can be fitted with cables plastic pipes allow water to drain.
# It will not only generate employment but will also reduces the burden of plastic, which is a non renewable resource.
^It is an important part of the smart village
^Planned interlinked city connectivity services should be provided
^ Villagers can easily commute with there goods from one place to another.
^ Availability of late night connectivity should be taken into consideration, so that people can easily return back home on time
^ Reserved seats for women and old age citizen in the Transport.
^ Availability of guard in every transport after 7 – 8 P.M which every is more safe
^ Multilayer storage system so that more crop can be stores under one roof.
^ Crops should be served on the basis of first come first go, it will reduce the risk of putrefying the crop
^ Storage should be equipped with moisture sensor so that the appropriate measures can be taken.
ix.) BIO- GAS
^ Converting manure into gas
^ Gas can be used for cooking, and leftover can be used as fertilizer in agriculture.
x.) COW SHED
^ Renounced cow should be managed by the panchayat at cow sheds
^ Attached bio gas plant, gas provided to needy or poor farmers
^ Help in eradicating the sensitivity from the area( as seen in past incidents).
“A most wonderful thing was notice in India is that here the forest, not the town, is the fountain head of all its civilization. Wherever in India its earliest and most wonderful manifestations are noticed, we find that men have not come into such close contact as to be rolled or fused into a compact mass. There, trees and plants, rivers and lakes, had ample opportunity to live in close relationship with men. In these forests, though there was human society, there was enough of open space, of aloofness; there was no jostling. Still it rendered it all the brighter. It is the forest that nurtured the two great ancient ages of India, the Vedic and the Buddhist. As did the Vedic Rishis, Buddha also showered his teaching in the many woods of India. The current of civilization that flowed from its forests inundated the whole of India.”
Smart village is not just about feeding rural population with technology. What it means is actually making people vibrant and sensible about technology moreover the resources. The problem of the time is not just that we lack resources rather we lack improvisation.
Whatever problems are there are not because administration lack efficiency rather it is because we lack connectivity, planning and research on every aspect. For solving them we have to utilize our resources in best possible way which are as follows:-
1.) Diaspora Summit:-
People, who have renounced the region due to any circumstances, should be invited back on certain events for sharing views and ideas with local people.
^It will help local people learn the working pattern of different region
2.) Leadership Program
^ It involves inculcating the spirit of leadership among the people.
^ it will boost up their skills, decision making power and moreover it will help them take righteous decision at right time.
3.) PPP (Public Private Partnership)
^ With the help of private partners such as any company we can develop a e- markets which help them do perform business on B2C platform.
From ages we have preached this land as transcendental personality but today with the advancement we forget gratitude which is an important aspect of law of attraction and thus we are harvesting negativity from the nature. Thus smart village is just about changing vision and showing compassion toward nature with development and believe me the nature will revert back to us in multiples.
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3.) European Network for rural development, and smart village
4.) U.P Agriculture Department
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7.) Irrigation department Govt. of Uttar Pradsh
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12 HRD ministery U.P and India
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