National education policy 2020

Reading time : 12 minutes

Education plays a most important powerful role in building a nation. Education decides the future of the nation. The long-lasting effect of education in terms of growth and development of the nation and on the individual citizen cannot be ignored in today’s generation of the modern technological world. India being a growing liberal country, currently have 845 universities, and approximately 40,000 education institutions, reflecting the overall many small-sized higher education institutions in the nation.

Some of the basic discrepancies found in the Indian education system are as follows: Early streaming of students into different disciplines.

  • Lack of access to Higher Education, especially in socio-economically backward areas.
  • Lack of quality teachers and institutional autonomy to make innovations in HE to motivate and inspire many students.
  • Insufficient procedure for career management and lack of good faculty and institutional leaders.
  • The lack of proper means and resources of research and innovations at most of the universities and colleges. 
  • Substandard levels of governance and leadership at higher education institutions. 
  • Corrupted system of higher education by allowing fake colleges and restraining the education quality. 

It is also to be noted that over 20% of the colleges have annual enrolment less than 100 students making them unworkable to improve the quality of education and only 4% of colleges have annual enrolment more than 3,000 students annually due to regional imbalance as well as the quality of education they offer. It is to be predicted that India will be the third-largest economy in the world by 2030-2032 with an estimated GDP of ten trillion dollars. The ten trillion economies will be driven by the best knowledge resources and not by the natural resources of the country. To boost the growth of the Indian education sector, the present government decided to renovate it by introducing a comprehensive and fresh National Education Policy 2020.

 The growth of our country can be seen and understood by the comparative study of the pre-independence and post-independence eras. After a very long period, i.e., 34 years government is going to change the curriculum and pattern of our education system. This is the 3rd amendment in the education policy. National education policy 2020 proposed by the union cabinet marks the bigger changes in school and college education. The new education policy aims at making “India a knowledge superpower with the use of current technology”. It was all about that the Indian government initiated a long-term process by a method to transform or develop the educational institutions in India and provide them the extra facilities so that they can be compared with the best institutions of the world. This was a landmark change by the government and the need of the hour. 

Indian education system 

The Indian education system has taken its present-day shape from the Gurukul system to the influenced British system, many changes have been accepted, implemented, and modified in the present educational system. The present education system of 10+2 soon to be replaced by the 5+3+3+4 system and the important changes in the stream system (Arts, Science, Commerce). Now that the students are free to choose their combination of subjects from the available subjects. The education system should prepare the students for the future so that they can achieve success to a greater height and make development at the community and individual level. It is expected that removing the barriers of the stream and giving liberty to students to choose their subject on their own and learn is going to expand their mental criteria.    

What motive does the new national education policy serve?

The new national education policy is a compilation of changes that guide the development of education in the country. The need for the first education policy was understood in the year 1964 when the congress MP criticized the then government for lacking perception and philosophy for education. The education commission headed by the UGC chairperson draft a national policy for education, which was passed in the year 1968. And then the second education policy in the year 1986. This is the third education policy which comes after a very long time. 

Constitutional provisions

Part IV of the constitution, Article 45 and 39(f) of Directives Principles of State Policy (DPSP) has a provision for state-funded as well as equitable and accessible education. 

The 42nd amendment to the constitution which is known as the “Mini Constitution” in 1976 moved education from state to the concurrent list. 

The education policies made by the central government are the broad direction which is to be followed by the state government but these policies are not mandatory. For example – Tamil Nadu does not follow three language formula which was prescribed in the first education policy of 1968.

The 86th amendment made to the constitution in 2002 made education an enforceable right under Article 21-A.

Article 30 of the Indian constitution provides for certain cultural and educational rights to establish and administer educational institutions. Article 14,15,16 safeguards the educational interest of weaker sections of the society, socially and economically backward class, scheduled caste, and scheduled tribes. India being a secular country, is a nation where religion matters and had always been given a high status. Under the constitution, minorities were given full rights to establish their educational institutions.   

Other Related Laws

Right to Education Act, 2009 aims to provide primary education to all the children of age groups between 6-14 years and make education a fundamental right. 

Government Schemes 

Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan, Mid-day Meal Scheme, and Kendriya Vidyalayas and use of It in the education policy. 

Policies till now

National Policy on Education 1968

  • Proposed equal educational opportunities for all citizens.
  • Right to Free and compulsory education for all children till the age of 14 years 
  • A minimum specialization qualification standard was set for teachers
  • Three language formula mainly focusing on English, Hindi and regional language
  • 10+2 uniform education structure
  • The policy also encouraged the teaching of an ancient language, Sanskrit which was considered to an essential to India’s cultural heritage
  • The NEP 1968 was called for spending 6% on the education of the national income 

National Policy on Education 1986

  • Major emphasis on removal of disparities and equal educational opportunity especially for Indian women, scheduled caste, and scheduled tribe.  
  • The child-centred approach in primary education 
  • Modelling of rural-university program
  • Operation-blackboard to improve primary schools 
  • This NEP expanded the system of open university with the Indira Gandhi national open university. 
  • This NEP was based on the philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi, to promote economic and social development at the grass-root level of the nation. 

National policy on Education 1992 

  • A new policy was adopted based on a “common minimum program”[1] To conduct the common entrance examination for admissions for all the professional and technical programs in the nation. 
  • This helps to take care of managing the admission standards and help in the maintenance of the professional standards of the programs 
  • This reduces the burden of the multiplicity of exams on the parents and students who are seeking admissions 

Fundamental principles of National Education Policy, 2020 

NEP 2020, is divided into four sections and addresses the following challenges facing the existing education system. 

  • Quality 
  • Accountability 
  • Equity 
  • Access 
  • Affordability 
  1. Recognizing, identifying, and promoting the unique strengths of each student separately.
  2. Encouraging each student’s development in both academic and non-academic. 
  3. Pliability for students to choose their learning programs
  4. No hard separation to be made between arts and science students curricular and extra-curricular activities 
  5. A multi-disciplinary and holistic educational approach to ensure unity and integrity of the nation. 
  6. Promotion of multi-language system 
  7. Social skills such as teamwork, cooperation, and resilience 
  8. Promoting innovation and out-of-the-blue ideas through good governance and empowerment. 

Objectives and Reforms of National education policy 2020

School Education

  1. Universalization of education from pre-school to secondary in school education by 2030. The new policy expands the mandatory age of schooling from 6-14 years to 3-18 years.
  2. The current schooling 10+2 system is to be replaced by a 5+3+3+4 structure for the age group of 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years respectively. This new system will include 12 years of schooling with 3 years of pre-schooling. 
  3. This new education structure will bring the uncovered children of age group from 3-6 years under the education curriculum, this age group is the most developing mental phase of a child, as recognized globally.
  4. Class 10th and 12th board examinations are to be made easier, to test the competencies of the students, this new education system changes its vision from theoretical knowledge to practical knowledge. 
  5. A new commission and an independent authority were instituted to regulate both public and private schools. Emphasis to be made on foundational literacy and numeracy, no separation academic streams, extra-curricular streams to be made.
  6. Teaching up to grade five at least in the mother tongue/ regional language. Tracking student progress with a 360-degree holistic approach. No teacher will be allowed to teach students by the year 2030 if he does not possess the minimum qualification of 4-year integrated B.Ed. degree. 
  7. Establishment of counsellors and social workers to improvise the mental health of the students.
  8. Increasing the education expenditure of the GDP at the earliest

 Higher Education

  1. Multi-disciplinary education in the undergraduate program with exit options where a degree can be of 3 or 4 years.
  2. Masters of philosophy courses to be discontinued and all other courses at UG, PG, and Ph.D. level will now be interdisciplinary 
  3. Post-graduation programs can be of 1 or 2 years 
  4. The national testing agency will conduct entrance examinations for all universities across the nation 
  5. Setting up of a general education council for education standards 
  6. Setting up of Higher education grant council for providing funds or financing of colleges and universities 
  7. Setting up of a national accreditation council for accreditation 
  8. Adding more seats in higher education

Teacher education 

  • Focus on the transparency and strengthening of the teacher’s recruitment process 
  • The national council for teacher education will form a new framework for teacher’s 
  • NCTE will provide and form a new framework for the professional standards of teacher’s
  • By 2023, the minimum qualification for teachers will be B.Ed. degree with 4-year integrated course to improve the facilities standards 

Professional education 

  • Universities that are offering law courses must prefer to offer bilingual languages for the future lawyers and judges—in English and state languages.
  • The Healthcare education system must be made in such a way that all the students of allopathic should have a basic understanding of Ayurveda, yoga, and naturopathy. 
  • Artificial intelligence, big data analysis, machine learning, in addition to genomic studies, biotechnology, with matters related to health. 

Other objectives 

  • The government will establish the national education commission 
  • Identifying and focusing on the specialized education zones to improve education among the underrated and disadvantaged regions 
  • For improving and strengthening the education of females and transgender children government will set up a Gender inclusion fund
  • More use of technology in the education planning, learning, and assessment 
  • Establishment of National Assessment Centre ‘PARAKH’ for the assessment of students 
  • Establishment of new language institutions such as the Indian institute for translation

Merits of higher education policies in NEP 2020

Student centric model 

The current education system is the teacher-centric model while it is being replaced by the student-centric as the right to choose their subjects to get to the student. Students can appear for competency-based evaluation at their own pace. 

Competency-based evaluation system 

As the current choice-based credit system, the competency-based credit system has the advantage of evaluating the students based on their skills and experience. 

Improved stem model of higher education curriculum 

To generalize the all-around development of students of higher education, they should be exposed to arts and design so that they develop a practical approach and creativity in solving their problems along with the help of science, technology, and mathematics. This new model is called the STEAM model better than the STEM model in higher education. 

Autonomy at all levels 

Higher education institutions should be given full autonomy to do innovations in the courses, curriculum, examination, and evaluation could able to improve the quality of education offered by them. Autonomy at all levels in the higher education system including financial decisions is an essential part of a progress-oriented system.

Encouragement to online training 

Uses of communication and information technology including education technology, internet technology, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, etc are very essential resources in the implementation of education in the 21st century. It is expected that the 21st century is the digital era of technology due to improved technology. Tech education is going to replace the old orthodox classroom educations and the new NEP 2020 laid down the foundation for it but it also supports the classroom education by adding a feature of research component in it. 

How will these reforms be implemented?

The newly made education policy 2020 only provides broad directions by the government and not mandatory to follow them, which means it is at the discretion of the government which objects or features of the policy are to be followed or not. Education is a concurrent subject (i.e., both state government and central government can make laws regarding it). The reforms proposed in the policy are collaboratively implemented by the state and central government. This procedure will take time and the present government has the vision to complete its implementation at least by the year 2040. This policy will be backed by sufficient funding because the NEP 1968 was crippled by the shortage of funds. The state and the central government should extensively increase the expenditure on education to attain the goals with excellence and will be beneficial for social-economic interests. The government will plan to set up committees for each aspect of the policy to be covered with members from both the relevant ministries for state and central government. Various multiple bodies like HRD ministry, NCERT, state education department, National Testing Agency, and others. 

Where do the difficulties lie?

Some of the proposals made in the national education policy, 2020 require legal changes. The proposals for the board of governors of different universities requires changes in the central and state acts. The national education trust has been set up by the government but to make it a fully autonomous body, an Act is must be required. Other proposals require proper funding, and for that ministry increased the ratio of funding to education to 6% of the GDP and feels that this will be sufficient for the implementations of the national education policy. The proposal to make the mother tongue the medium of instructions has already started a debate amongst other political parties and is left at the discretion of the state government. Thus, the new education policy aims to rectify the errors and demerits of the then existing educational system and also to develop the country to face the challenges of the modern and technological world with increasing prospects of artificial intelligence. That will the country become a global knowledge hub in the world.   

Opportunities and challenges 

There is a major difference between learning and being literate, when a child is admitted to school he is expected to learn and gain knowledge so that he can be successful in his career. The current education system is based on the number system, the focus is on the grades not on the conceptual clarity of concepts. The present system is criticized by many due to its learning methods. The skills and knowledge required to survive in corporate are missing in the education system.

There are two major factors behind the changes in the education policy and to resolve them is the motive of the new policy.

Unemployment

This is a very important topic to discuss, employment could be the purpose for a person studying and sharpening their skills and after gaining experience in the particular sector enjoys growth and development in his career. 

In today’s scenario, the companies want the best employees because there are more options and more challenges, and organizations want the best people to achieve the heights of success. The NEP proposes the tool like choosing the subjects of various combinations to study, changing the exam pattern, focus on the conceptual clarity of the subjects, providing exposure according to the talent of the student.

Self-employment

This is an important part related to the employment where the candidate used to make an effort on his own to start his venture. Nowadays start-ups are like fashion. Everyone wants to start their own business. The new education policy will help the students to manage their skills and energy in the right direction so that they can use their skills to fill the gaps in the industry to their own business.  

Further suggestions for improvements

Ph.D. should be a compulsory qualification for a permanent teaching position in colleges and universities 

Like the B.Ed. is the minimum qualification for teaching in foundation, primary and secondary education. Ph.D. research should be compulsory for teaching in universities and colleges to mould the students into the research side also.  

Uses of services of retired professors as research guides  

With the requirement of huge Ph.D. degree holders in autonomous colleges due to changes in policies of NEP 2020, the demand for research guides is accelerating. The perfect solution for solving this shortage is the employment of services of retired professors with good research familiarization. It is suggested that the universities should use the services of retired professors as research guides.

The proper definition of Multidisciplinary College

A multidisciplinary college or university should have a minimum of Five disciplines belonging to different faculty areas. For example, (1) Languages, (2) Basic Sciences, (3) Social Sciences, (4) Engineering, (5) Education, (6) Medical Sciences, (7) Dental Sciences, (8) Para-medical sciences, (9) Business Management & Commerce, (10) Computer Science, etc.

Higher education leaders should be the role models in research activities 

The head and the members of all the committees of the HE department should be strictly selected based on their research work during the last five years. Obsolete professors/ bureaucrats should be kept outside the selection procedure. There should be no political and bureaucratic pressure on the selection. 

Compulsory patent during post-graduation courses 

Students doing research based on industry internships and publish research papers and own patents must be a requirement of their degree program. There should be aware of the IPR related laws among the researchers.

Vocational training while learning encouragement based on earning 

 To encourage self-dependency after 18 years of age, students should be encouraged to develop their skills in the interested area so that their dependency on parents can be reduced. The vocational training program based on earn while learning can be given importance at the higher education level. 

Faculty accountability to boost performance 

According to NEP 2020, all higher education institutions are based on quality and merit. All the appointments of the faculty should strictly be based on merit and dedication. To maintain growth and development in education a critical scale of measurement has to be followed 

Simplify the patent filing and speed up of patent evaluation

The Indian government through arranging measures and by awareness programs made clear to the researchers of the patent filing process, patent filing fees, and within the evaluation time which is decreased to 3 to 6 months from the current 3 to 6 years so that the research will file a patent for their research.  

Benefits to the society

Education is necessary to build a developed and growing society to develop a nation. All the stakeholders are a part of society. The new venture gives employment to the job seekers and the money earn is rotating back into the Indian economy which in turn helps the nation to grow. 

In this covid-19 era, new skills and technologies are being used to fight against the deadly virus, the NEP gives more exposure to the students to expose their skills do some moral good for the society as a whole.    

Conclusion 

The new education policy aims to ease an inclusive and holistic approach that takes into consideration practical experiences as well as the lessons learned from the practices. National education policy 2020, has uncovered a lot of thought process, optimistic approach by the government of India. There are no specific compartments and boundaries. The predicted period is significantly extended, with 20+ years of span. It starts with the grass-root level, that is with the school level goes through the graduate and even though the higher level of education. The main idea behind the NEP is holistic, multi-disciplinary, broad-based education. There is also the main focus on vocational education that starts within the early phase. The policy is divided into three parts concerning the learner and the fourth part is to make it happen. A new agency will be set up called the national research foundation will fund innovative project ideas in the field of science, applied science, humanities, and social science. The transformation level will start from the academic year 2021-2022 and will long last till the 2030 year. 


Author: RAJAT SHARMA, AMITY LAW UNIVERSTY, NOIDA

Editor: Kanishka VaishSenior Editor, LexLife India

NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY 2020

Reading time : 8 minutes

Introduction:

Education is a fundamental for the achievement of full human potential by promoting national development. By providing universal access to high quality education is the key to India’s success on the global stage in relation to economic growth and equal society.

The current gap between the states of learning outlines what is required to be done as compared to what the present situation is by undertaking various reforms that brings highest quality, integrity to the system starting from early childhood care and education through higher education.

The National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020) outlines a broad structure of the India’s New Education System. It has replaced the old structure of the National policy on Education, 1986.

It enhances in a mass scale and a huge development for both school and higher educational sectors. The new policy aims to reform the way for tremendous growth in schools and highest educational institutions.

It is built on four pillars namely Access, Equity, Quality, Affordability and accountability. It mainly aims on global knowledge by making schools and college education more flexible, convenient and disciplined. It brings out the unique skills and abilities for each student.

Vision of the National Educational Policy-

By providing high quality education to everyone, it contributes to an equitable society. It also entails the duties, constitutional values and conscious awareness of one’s roles and responsibilities in the modern era. Elaborating skills, values that supports sustainable development, human rights by reflecting a responsible citizen.

Principles of this policy-

The purpose of the education system is to develop and create a better balanced thought and actions, creative imagination with moral values. A good education institution is one where each and every student should feel comfortable and being cared for, where the students are expected to learn and gain experiences and suitable resources are available to students.

The basic fundamental governing principles are as follows-

  • Identifying the capabilities of each student- by promoting each student’s holistic development in both academics and non-academics.
  • Flexibility- students here can choose their learning programmes and activities and based on that they can further pursue in career on the same.
  • More emphasis on conceptual learning- rather than bookish knowledge and leaning before exams.
  • Creativity and critical thinking- to support innovation and encourage in decision making.
  • Extensive use of technology- in teaching and learning, increasing the access for viklaang students and planning of educational management.

Vision of the Policy in parts-

Part I- School education:

1. Early childhood care and Foundation: The origin of learning-

In general, a child’s brain development occurs before the age of 6 which indicates the critical importance of appropriate care and stimulation which ensures the healthy development of brain at present. The main objective will be to ensure the global access to top- level ECCE (Early Childhood Care and Education) in a phased manner nationwide.

2. Foundational Literacy and Numeracy: An Urgent & Necessary Prerequisite to Learning-

It is a prerequisite ability to read and write and have operations with numbers for lifelong learning. Based on numerous governmental surveys it shows that currently our nation lacks in learning the very basics. On extracurricular activities, the main focus will be on reading, writing, listening with a robust system of advanced learning system to ensure each and every students learning.

The mental health of a children are a vital element in their development stage. This can be improved by providing mid-day meals.

3. Curtailing Dropout Rates and Ensuring Universal Access to Education at All Levels-

The primary goal is to ensure that the children are enrolled and are attending school regularly. Initiatives such as Right to Education Act, Sarva Siksha Abhiyan. It has shown a marvelous growth and increasing in number of enrollments in educational institutions.

By providing a well- maintained infrastructure which is effective and efficient from preprimary to class 12, the students who have dropped out will come back mostly. Special care of every students must be taken care of. For EWS category, the fees of the schooling shall be at subsidized rate in government schools. Student’s active participation in school is an important responsibility which will facilitate them in the near future. The quality of education must be maintained at all time in order to retain he students by their own self-interest.

4. Curriculum and Pedagogy in Schools: Learning Should be Holistic, Integrated, Enjoyable, and Engaging-

Restructuring school curriculum and pedagogy in a new 5+3+3+4 design-

The Pedagogical structure of education will help in the improvement of the students’ needs and their interests at various stages of their development consisting of age between 3-8,8-11,11-14,14-18 respectively. Hence the pedagogical structure will be guided by a 5+3+3+4 design, consisting of the Foundational Stage (in two parts, that is, 3 years of Anganwadi/pre-school + 2 years in primary school in Grades 1-2; both together covering ages 3-8), Preparatory Stage (Grades 3-5, covering ages 8-11), Middle Stage (Grades 6-8, covering ages 11-14), and Secondary Stage (Grades 9-12 in two phases, i.e., 9 and 10 in the first and 11 and 12 in the second, covering ages 14-18).  

5. Reduce curriculum content to enhance essential learning and critical thinking-

The contents of curriculum will be reduced in each subject to its core essential element in order to create space for analytical thinking and more holistic in nature for learning. It will mainly focus on applications, ideas and problem-solving.

6. Empower students through flexibility in course choices-

Students will have flexibility and choice of courses for studies, especially in secondary school which focuses on physical education, art and craft, etc which will facilitate them to set a path to their career life.

7. National Textbooks with Local Content and Flavor-

The textbooks shall primarily contain the essential core material which is important on a national level but it must also contain any supplementary materials which is needful to the society at a large. Also the main target will be make available the quality textbooks at a minimal rate just like the production rate.

8. Transforming Assessment for Student Development-

The main objective of the assessment will be learning, it will help in the student teacher learning process and also the entire schooling system to determine development and learning for all students.

As the Board exams for Class 10 and 12 will be continued, to reduce the burden of taking coaching classes, existing system of entrance examinations shall be reformed. Tracking the progress of each and every students will improve their learning skills and analytical reasoning.

9. Continuous Professional Development (CPD)-

Teachers will be provided ample opportunities for their self-improvement and to have the orientation of the latest technologies to advance their profession and teaching. School principals and school infrastructure will have development platforms and management workshops in order to develop and share best practices with others.

10. Special educators-

There is a vital role for additional special educators for specific areas of teaching such as children with disabilities or Divyaang children at the secondary and senior secondary school level. Apart from the knowledge of common elements of subject, the teachers should also be prepared for special requirements for special child.

11. Approach to educational qualification for teachers-

The Govt. of India has set an objective that by 2030, the minimum qualification degree for teaching in schools or colleges will be 4 year integrated B.Ed. degree that includes a depth knowledge of the core elements of teaching and also strong practicum training in a method of student learning at schools.

It is deemed that there shall be multiple pedegagocial approaches globally for teaching specific subjects, the NCERT will together club the research, study, document to reach a varied international approaches for teaching different subjects.

12. Equitable and Inclusive Education: Learning for All-

Education is the primary tool for achieving social justice and equality. Inclusive and equitable education is an essential aim in its own right where every citizen dream to study. This new education policy will also acknowledge the importance to promote education of children belonging to all minority communities and also those who remain unattended. The awareness among teachers regarding how to interact the student with special disabilities with utmost care will be an integral part of teacher educational programme.

13. Efficient Resourcing and Effective Governance through School Complexes/Clusters-

The small schools in our country have economical average support and complex operationally to run the school in an efficient manner in term of the enrolment of the school teachers of physical resources. The environment teaching in small schools have a negative impact on student teacher learning. Administration structure in small schools, not efficiently operative based on the increase in the school students with unified structure of the Samagra Shiksha Scheme.

14. Standard-setting and Accreditation for School Education-

The goal of every school is to improve their education reformatory system in order to provide a seamless educational outcomes, it shall not restrict schools in some performances or lower down the moral of students or teachers.

The educational operations service matters for public schooling system will be dealt by the Directorate of School Education (including the offices of DEO and BEO) which will work as an independent body to implement policies regarding educational operations.

An effective quality accreditation system will ensure the quality education and efficient operations of educational and schooling system with essential equality standards.

Public and private schools will be accredited (Central govt schools exception will be levied) will be assessed and accredited on the same criteria, rules and regulations which will enunciate both physical and virtual transparency and disclosure to public in general.

The standard setting system for school regulation, accreditation and governance shall be reviewed in due course of time in order to enable improvements in the areas of leaning for school students and teachers as well.

Careful attention is essential for the children and adolescents must not be left behind in this entire process, it is primarily designed for them. The growth of such mechanisms that are well-known, effective and timely to all student will be accorded at high priority.

Part II. HIGHER EDUCATION

15. Quality Universities and Colleges: A New and Forward-looking Vision for India’s Higher Education System-

In our today’s generation, having a qualification of higher degree is a must in order to pursue any higher studies or job in the near future. Higher education aims to create a well-rounded and creative individuals. For the purpose of developing holistic skills, it is necessary that an identified set of skills and values will be incorporated at every stage of learning starting from pre-school till higher education.

There are few issues at present which is being faced by the majority in Higher education system of India-

i) Less emphasis on the growth of cognitive skills and learning outcomes

ii) limited teacher and rigid institutional autonomy

iii) an ineffective regulatory system

iv) rigid separation of disciplines of students in schools.

This policy has following key changes with regards to current system-

i) establishing a highly multidisciplinary undergraduate education

ii) enhancing faculty training teaching and institutional autonomy

iii) restructuring the enrolling of teachers and institutional leaders through merit qualification based on research, skills, knowledge, etc.

iv) regulation by a single regulator for higher education.

16. Institutional Restructuring and Consolidation-

The main aim of this policy relating to the higher education is to diminish the fragmentation of higher education by transforming the higher educational institutions into multidisciplinary

Colleges and universities. The same will be the aim to achieve students above 3000. This will help students to be all rounded disciplinary in various subjects namely analytical, sports, etc. A university will have a multidisciplinary institution that offers undergraduates and post graduate programmes with high quality teaching and top level management for operations.

17. Towards a More Holistic and Multidisciplinary Education-

A holistic and multidisciplinary education aims to develop well diverse knowledge and extra set of skills in every students in an integrated manner. The structure of every UG/PG courses should be flexible with regards to multiple exit options. For e.g- a certificate shall be provided after completing 1 year in a discipline, or a diploma after 2 years of study, or a bachelor’s degree after 3 years. However the 4 years bachelor degree will be the preferred option as it will allow a student to experience the full range of their holistic and in addition to that a focus on the chosen major as per the interests of the student.

18. Optimal Learning Environments and Support for Students-

In order to promote innovative ideas, educational institutions will have the authority to innovate on the issues regarding to assessment, curricular within a large framework of higher educational qualifications.

Each institution will formulate its own academic plans which may be subject to change on a yearly basis. It shall range from curricular improvement to quality of classroom interaction into its bigger Institutional Development Plan (IDP).

Students from socio-economically backward background require motivation and encouragement to make a successful development to higher studies.

A finance assistance shall be provided to eligible students based on the merit of students belonging to SC, ST, OBC, and other SEDGs. The portal of National Scholarship will be expanded to support and monitor the progress of students receiving scholarships.

19. Transforming the Regulatory System of Higher Education-

In order to regulate the mechanism, the primary step will be the accreditation. The same will be done by National Accreditation Council (NAC). Accreditation of institutions will be done based on basic norms, better governance, quality of education which will be carried out by an independent body  which is supervised and monitored by National Accreditation Council (NAC).

20. Effective Governance and Leadership for Higher Education Institutions-

It enables in creating a culture of excellence and innovation in educational institutions.

Part III. OTHER KEY AREAS OF FOCUS

21. Professional Education-

Professional education must be especially involved in analytical and interdisciplinary thinking, debates, research and innovation. In order to achieve it, professional education must not take place in one’s specialty of isolation. It is an integral part of the higher education system.

22. Technology Use and Integration-

Our nation’s Digital India Campaign is providing every resource available to digitally empower the society and the economy nationwide. Technology has a greater impact for our today’s global situation, every sessions of schools and colleges are being conducted online through various platforms.

Part IV. MAKING IT HAPPEN

23. Strengthening the Central Advisory Board of Education-

This policy recommends for the strengthening of Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) which will be regulating and providing a widespread suggestions and examinations of matters relating to educational and cultural development.

To bring the focus back on education and learning, it is desirable that the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) be re-designated as the Ministry of Education (MoE).

24. Implementation-

In order to bring into force for this policy, implementation will be required by the designated authority in this behalf. Therefore the implementation of this policy will be headed by various bodies including MHRD, Union and State Governments, State department of Education, regulatory bodies of school and higher education in order to ensure that the policy is implemented in its good spirit for all. In the late 2030s, the entire policy will be operational throughout the country, and comprehensive review will be taken accordingly.

Author: Abhinaba Pal, ICFAI LAW SCHOOL, HYDERABAD

Editor: Kanishka VaishSenior Editor, LexLife India.